Topic: Understanding How Post-Modernism Shaped Art
What is post modernism? – 1 page
Use the excerpts below, rephrase and expand them.
Postmodernism: the perspective belonging to the age of the loss of referents and commodified addressing of needs,
• It is the viewpoint of the age of the breakdown of everything that is directly human or natural, and at the same time, the removal of all that divides human beings – i.e., the paradox of postmodernism,
• It is the ideology of a world that has lost its historical referents (i.e., referents belonging to prior ages, different stages in the development of the means of production, and the related forms of alienated existence) but not yet found its foundation in humanity, the essence of human relations (the subject of aesthetics),
• It contains a ‘critique’ of ‘meta-narratives’ or ‘master narratives’ because on the surface there is nothing in existing society to suggest these ‘narratives’ reflect the reality, such as it is.
Consequences of post modernism – 2 pages
Discuss the following, –
1. Loss of identity –no sense of who/what one is
2. People do not have standards, no found, no measuring stick
3. Everything is valid/acceptable, nothing matters
4. Loss of faith in absolutes (due to the destruction of humanity especially in WWs and globalization)
5. A lot of discourses, which result to no truth. Everything is considered opinions.
What is art in post modernism? – 2 pages
Please rephrase and expand on this description
• Art = form and content and its development
• Content represents the degree of awareness of one’s humanity, of consciousness of self-consciousness • This consciousness develops in stages – each shorter than the previous stage, because…
• This consciousness roughly corresponds to the stage and character of the development of the mode of production,
• Global production/distribution brings awareness of global humanity,
• That is, to the degree and kind of the division of labour and the definable humanity that is visible.
• Paradox: mode of production can both increase awareness and reduce it.
• Consciousness need not grow in depth and breadth; it can also decline and become narrow and thin and unprincipled and amoral.
• The impact of capitalism on consciousness: the world become ugly, i.e., it loses its human qualities.
Factors that influence art in post-modernism – 2 pages
Discuss and expand on the following
1. Commodity fetishism: the reduction of social relations to contractual relations and the human as personified embodiments of private property,
2. Alienation: the selling of our productive labour and the loss of our sense of self and relations to others. • Both of these can be summed up as characteristic of society as marketplace: ‘buyer beware,’ i.e., the world we live in,
3. Liberal Democracy: the political system that passes as democracy, but which defines our political being and practice as atomized individuals, without actual direct links with either political parties or established governments. Our relation to our ‘whole’ is a pretended one, ostensibly achieved through one person one vote in infrequent elections to choose already chosen candidates.
4. Turn of the Century: first coming of mass production, mass consumerism; Fordism (assembly-line and Taylorism) = mass production, mass consumption, and mass advertising;
Outcomes of these 3 factors – 2 pages
Discuss and expand on the following;
• The coming of successive nodal points of inhumanity that necessarily have an effect on our sensibilities – especially for artists and the appreciation of art.
• • De-humanization: To de-humanize another is to de-humanize yourself.
• • To live in an inhuman culture is to take on the same characteristics.
• • 1.First nodal point: factory system and unbridled capitalism (no political/social rights, no protection of the propertyless) in the first half of 19thC.
• • The CMP transforms human beings from goals in themselves into instruments and means for money-making and capital accumulation.
• the better part of 19th century philosophy begins to embrace the perspective of the individual – the despair, negativity, nihilism of the individual who is without a link to the social – the social having become the marketplace, contract, or the individual atom as political being.