The Tools of Light in Different Forms

The lab report is about the tools of light in various forms. I have done three different surveys and have the results with me for each survey, but I will write about all three surveys in a single lab report. In addition, I will follow the teacher’s instructions exactly as follows:

1. Introduction:
In the introduction I will write about the model light in general, then write about the two light models specifically which is that light is a wave motion and the other that light is a particle. I will also write about the development of light and how it was then and now. Thus, I will write a societal aspect for light in the introduction. All of these are written according to what different sources write about light.

2. Purpose (I have written it, so it should not be changed):
To examine the tools of light in different forms.

3. Material

It is considered both difficult to read and ugly to have a headline directly under a headline. To avoid this, you can write a short line where you mention which content follows in which order. Thus: Here follows a presentation of laboratory equipment and sources used. Note that you write in the past tense, if the section contains text, as soon as you talk about what you have done yourself.

3.1 Laboratory equipment
Some simple aids can be included in the form of a bulleted list, e.g. magnifying glass or the like. Here you do not need fluent text.

3.2 Sources
Sources are presented in the form of a descriptive text. Describe the relevance and credibility of the sources. Use several different types of sources in your work. Results and facts from sources are presented in the present as soon as the current facts are concerned: Westring (1805) describes 30 recipes for different colors based on Parmelia saxatilis, color lichen.

4. Method:

You write the method chapter in the past tense (past tense): in the first part of the experiment,… was built…, because here you describe your not yet safe contribution to knowledge.

4.1 Choice of method
Here you write why you chose the current method (to determine the salinity, three different evaporation tests were performed…).

4.2 Implementation
Here you must describe how you intend to proceed to provide answers to the questions / hypothesis. It is important to describe your method accurately, so that someone else can do the same in a new job (the reproducibility requirement).

5. Result

Here you describe the answer to the questions in the same order as the questions under the heading “Question” or the hypothesis. You can also use tables, charts and the like to increase clarity. Calculations must also be reported here. Also use the literature. No conclusions, discussions or investigations! The chapter is written in the past tense (past tense), but captions are written in the present tense (Table 2 shows…).

6. Conclusions / Discussion
A small line of body text presents the chapter’s layout.

6.1 Discussion of results
Here the result is discussed and analyzed. You explain why you got the result you got and discuss why it turned out, or did not turn out as you thought. Compare with the literature if your result is correct. Try not to introduce new angles.

6.2 Method discussion
Analyze what was good and bad with the method. Give examples of sources of error (varying temperature may have affected bacterial growth…).

6.3 Proposals for future surveys
Here you give suggestions for further, supplementary investigations.

List of sources

Here you list all the sources you have used. All sources are written in alphabetical order. For examples of source lists, see e.g. Swedish hours – The language (Skoglund, Waje 2011, p. 215).

Books are written:
Author’s last name, first name (year), Title, place of publication: publisher
Ex: Skoglund, Svante, Waje, Lennart (2000), Svenska uppslag, Stockholm: Gleerups

Newspaper articles are written:
Author’s last name, first name, “Article title”, Newspaper name, date or issue
Ex: Axelsson, Lennart, “Give young people a fair chance”, in GöteborgsPosten, 2000-08-23

Websites are written:
Organization / Authority behind the page (update), page ‘title’, link, date of visit Ex: Naturskyddsföreningen (2013-12-12), “Ängen är artrikast”, and-environment / agriculture-and-food / agricultural-environmental impact / biological-diversity / concerns /, 2014-01-22

Interviews are written:
Interview with Name, position, company, time and date of the interview
Ex: Larsson Hasse, CEO Herrljunga Bostäder, interview 2011-10-03

Rules for source references

In order for the person reading your report to be able to check your sources, it is important that it is clear what your own reasoning is and what you get from other sources.
Use summary markers if necessary (XX considers / points out / emphasizes / underlines, according to XX, XX further means that) and
mark quotes with “quotation marks”. Quotes must be written exactly as the source.

You also need to insert references in the text. Immediately after a summary or quotation, indicate the source in parentheses. For example.:
There are three main reasons why older dialects are disappearing (Skoglund 1995, p. 198). Or:
Skoglund states that “the really old, genuine dialects are about to disappear” (1995, p. 198).

The Tools of Light in Different Forms
Transmission Grille, Double Slot and Single Slot
Generally, light is a transverse, electromagnetic wave that can be detected by the typical human eye. Scientifically, light is perceived to be both a particle and a wave. From the basic research done by Albert Einstein, scientists observe the model of light in both aspects of light. When an Ultraviolet light hits a metal surface, observations report that it leads to the emission of electrons. The effect is known as photoelectric, which proposes that light though being a wave, also consists of a stream of particles. The development of light involves different researchers that made a discovery on the properties and principles of light.
The most important theories and concepts in the development of light include Particle Theory and Prism, the wave theory, the electromagnetic theory, radiation theory, and finally, the photo model by Albert Einstein. From the Particle Model of Light, a light ray is found to be made of a stream of massless particles, which explains the straight propagation of light and the colors of light. Moreover, the wave theory gave the concept that light is a wave that can transfer energy without transferring matter. Light waves were associated with having varying wavelengths, frequencies, speeds, and amplitudes. The electromagnetic theory identified that light manifests in the form of an electromagnetic field that does not require a medium for transmission. The radiation theory argued the electromagnetic property of light by stating that it is emitted in quanta delivered in small packets of energy. All those concepts and theories are scientific; the societal aspect for light is that life would be difficult without light.

To examine the tools of light in different forms.
The following is a presentation of laboratory equipment and sources used during the
Laboratory equipment
Interference in transmission grating: Mercury lamp, Lens, Column, Lattice, A screen, Calculator, Pen, and paper
Interference in double-column: A4 paper, Tape, Laser light, Double column, Ruler, Calculator, Pen, and paper
Single column interference: Grid spectrometer, Spectral tubes, Spectral tube holder, Calculator, Pen and paper

Choice of method
The method utilized was according to the teacher’s instructions. In the instructions, the researcher understood the method that should be carried out, the materials that should be used, and the reason to carry the survey.
Interference in transmission grating:
Initially, the mercury lamp, the lens, slit, the grid, and screen will be mounted on an optical bench with the purpose of determining the wavelengths. The distance between the three bright lines was measured. Measurement of the distance involves the measuring of the distance between the two identical colors and the application of the formula. On the grid, the grid constant and the angle were measured by the distance between the screen and the grid, as well as the measurement of the wavelength and the application of the formula. Using the pen and paper, the results were noted.
Interference in double-column:
The A4 paper has taped a distance of 2 meters from the double-column illuminated with laser light in the determination of column distance, d. Using the formula, the column is spacing is determined. The wavelength of the laser light was obtained from the laser. Angle a was measured through the measurement of the distance between the paper and the light laser while the wavelength measurement was measured and the formula applied. The column spacing was calculated, d, through the application of the formula. Using the paper and pen, the results are recorded.
Diffraction in a single column:
To determine the wavelength, a grating spectrometer was placed in front and, at the same time, determine the type of substance was on the spectrometer—the application of the formula determined the wavelength in the presence of the lattice cash. The measurement of the angle, a, was using a spectrometer and the formula according to the measurements of the angles displayed on the spectrometer screen. The results were recorded using paper and pencil.
Interference in transmission grating:
Wavelength distance between two identical colors: = 573 nm.
= 537 nm.
= 434 nm.
Interference in double-column:
Diffraction in a single column:
The angle between two identical colors: = 666 nm.
= 490 nm.
= 445 nm.
The substance is Helium.
Discussion of results
In the lab, the nature of light as a wave was investigated in terms of interference. The experiment was possible by successfully measuring the wavelengths and the color of visible lines using a grating spectrometer. It is clear that diffracted lights shine on a distant screen, which has a central bright. The most probable source of error in the experiment would be about the incorrect recording of measurements from the apparatus.
Method Discussion
The method was followed effectively as required by the teacher’s instructions. The method would cause errors due to the varying temperatures of the apparatus that would affect the growth of bacteria.
Proposal for future surveys

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