Introduction to Mental Health & Mental Health Disorders
Assignment Question addressing Assessment Criteria
Mark, a 16-year-old high school student, visits you (the school nurse) during class in distress. He tells you that he is being bullied at school because the kids think he is gay. Mark tells you he thinks he might be transsexual, but that he is scared to tell anyone and states that he has suicidal thoughts. He is not supported at home. His mother and father, health care professionals, work long hours and his older sister picks on him. Mark’s best friend since the age of 10 recently told him he did not want to hang out with him anymore because he was “weird”. A few months ago, another friend who was picked on more than Mark went missing. Rumour in the school indicates that he ended his life.
In your answers (to the below questions 1 to 13), please refer to the case study outlined above and reference your work according to the referencing guidelines.
In Mark’s case, list four risk factors which increase the risk of suicide.
List four questions which you would ask Mark to determine his safety?
List two types of community-based support strategies which you would recommend?
Do you approach Mark’s family? If so, how?
Mark tells you that he does not want you to tell anyone else that he is being bullied and having suicidal thoughts. How should you respond to Mark’s request?
List three things that you would do to keep Mark safe.
There seems to be public stigma towards LGBTIQ+ people in your school. List two things that can you do to tackle this stigma?
What should you keep in mind with regards to Mark saying that he might be transsexual and maintaining confidentiality?
How would you build a therapeutic relationship with Mark?
CONTINUATION OF CASE STUDY
As the bullying continued, Mark eventually became more withdrawn, preferring to spend most of his time in his room. When engaging with his parents, Mark would frequently become angry and on occasions, he would threaten them with violence. He was eventually referred to a mental health crises service by his GP. On assessment, Mark admitted hearing voices. At times, these voices were comforting and at other times quite threatening. He was diagnosed with schizophrenia.
How is schizophrenia diagnosed?
When devising a care plan for Mark, list four types of psychological interventions which should be considered?
Mark is prescribed antipsychotic medication. On this basis list two physical health issues which might arise? How would these issues impact Mark’s quality of life?
Using the biopsychosocial theory, which factors do you think contributed to Mark’s schizophrenia? Discuss.
This Medical Science Assignment
Four risk factors that increase the risk of suicide in Mark’s case are:
Bullying and social isolation
Lack of support at home
Previous suicide of a friend
Four questions to determine Mark’s safety are:
Have you thought about hurting or killing yourself?
Have you made a plan to hurt or kill yourself?
Do you have access to means to hurt or kill yourself?
Do you have someone you can talk to when you feel overwhelmed or distressed?
Two types of community-based support strategies that could be recommended for Mark are:
Peer support groups for LGBTIQ+ youth, where he could connect with others who have had similar experiences
Counseling or therapy services provided by local mental health organizations that specialize in working with youth and LGBTIQ+ individuals.
Yes, approaching Mark’s family is important in order to create a support system for him. The approach should be made with sensitivity and a focus on how the family can best support Mark. It may be helpful to suggest family therapy or counseling sessions as a way to work through the challenges that Mark and his family are facing.
It is important to respect Mark’s request for confidentiality, but also to explain the limitations of confidentiality and the need to share information with other professionals if there is a risk of harm to himself or others. It may be helpful to offer Mark a choice of who else he would like to involve in his care, such as a trusted teacher or school counselor.
Three things that can be done to keep Mark safe are:
Creating a safety plan with Mark that outlines steps he can take when he feels overwhelmed or suicidal
Ensuring that Mark has access to crisis helplines or emergency services
Providing ongoing support and checking in regularly with Mark to monitor his well-being.
Two things that can be done to tackle stigma towards LGBTIQ+ people in the school are:
Providing education and awareness-raising sessions for students and staff on issues related to sexual orientation and gender identity
Creating a safe and inclusive environment for LGBTIQ+ students, such as establishing a gender-neutral bathroom or forming a school-based LGBTIQ+ support group.
When Mark says that he might be transsexual, it is important to maintain confidentiality and respect his gender identity. It may be helpful to provide resources and referrals for support services for trans youth and their families.
Building a therapeutic relationship with Mark can be achieved through:
Active listening and empathy
Providing a non-judgmental and supportive environment
Encouraging Mark to express his feelings and thoughts openly and honestly.
Schizophrenia is diagnosed through a combination of clinical assessment and diagnostic criteria based on the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders).
Four types of psychological interventions that should be considered for Mark’s care plan are:
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to address negative thought patterns and improve coping skills
Family therapy to address family dynamics and support Mark’s relationship with his parents
Group therapy to provide peer support and reduce social isolation
Psychoeducation to increase understanding of schizophrenia and improve medication adherence.
Two physical health issues that might arise with antipsychotic medication are weight gain and metabolic disturbances. These issues can impact Mark’s quality of life by increasing his risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other health problems.
The biopsychosocial theory suggests that schizophrenia is caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors. Biological factors may include genetic predisposition and neurobiological abnormalities. Psychological factors may include stress, trauma, and cognitive deficits. Social factors may include social isolation, stigma, and family dysfunction. It is important to address all of these factors in developing