Assignment: E-Poster (1000 words)
For this assignment, you will prepare an E-poster critically evaluating two different theoretical explanations for the association between personality and individual differences in behavior. You will identify a behavioral phenomenon associated with differences in personality. You will then introduce TWO personality theories and outline how each of these theories might explain your chosen phenomenon. You should compare and contrast these explanations and evaluate them critically, drawing upon relevant research findings.
The assignment should include the following five elements:
1) The phenomenon: identify a specific phenomenon, define it, and discuss its significance. Look below for some examples.
2) Theory 1: describe how theory 1 explains the phenomenon. This section requires that you a) Select a relevant personality theory; b) briefly outline the overall nature of the theory; c) explain how this theory might explain your chosen phenomenon.
3) Theory 2: describe how theory 2 explains the phenomenon. This section requires that you a) Select another relevant personality theory; b) briefly outline the overall nature of the theory; c) explain how this theory might explain your chosen phenomena.
4) Compare and contrast these explanations and evaluate them critically, drawing upon relevant research findings. This section requires you to compare and contrast the theories in terms of how they explain the phenomena and critically evaluate the two theories. You should bring in specific research evidence in this section in terms of evaluating how well your two chosen theories explain your chosen phenomena. *Use a graph or drawing
Some examples of phenomena that you can select from for the E-Poster assignment;
Motivation and academic achievement
Vulnerability or resilience to substance use disorders
E-Poster: Personality and its Association with Work Engagement
Phenomenon: Work engagement refers to the degree to which employees are actively involved and enthusiastic about their work. This phenomenon has significant implications for employee performance, job satisfaction, and organizational outcomes. Work engagement is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption, which are positively associated with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and productivity (Bakker & Demerouti, 2008). Conversely, a lack of work engagement is associated with negative outcomes, such as burnout, absenteeism, and turnover intention (Bakker et al., 2010).
Theory 1: The Big Five Personality Model
The Big Five Personality Model is a widely recognized trait theory that proposes that personality can be described in terms of five broad dimensions, including openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (Costa & McCrae, 1992). According to this theory, personality traits are stable over time and across situations, and they influence behavior and affective experiences. Work engagement can be linked to personality traits in various ways. For example, conscientiousness is positively associated with work engagement because it involves being organized, reliable, and persistent (Salgado et al., 2013). Moreover, extraversion can also predict work engagement because it involves being sociable, assertive, and enthusiastic (Shirom, 2003).
Theory 2: Self-Determination Theory
Self-Determination Theory is a motivational theory that proposes that individuals are naturally inclined to satisfy their basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness (Ryan & Deci, 2000). When these needs are met, individuals are more likely to experience intrinsic motivation, which is associated with optimal functioning, well-being, and engagement. In the context of work engagement, Self-Determination Theory suggests that employees who experience autonomy, competence, and relatedness at work are more likely to be engaged in their work. For example, when employees are given the opportunity to use their skills and knowledge, have control over their work, and receive feedback and support, they are more likely to experience work engagement (Deci et al., 2017).
Compare and contrast these explanations and evaluate them critically, drawing upon relevant research findings.
The Big Five Personality Model and Self-Determination Theory offer distinct perspectives on the association between personality and work engagement. While the former emphasizes the role of stable personality traits, the latter focuses on the role of situational factors and psychological needs. Both theories have received empirical support for their ability to predict work engagement.
Research has consistently shown that conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness to experience are positively associated with work engagement, while neuroticism is negatively associated with it (Salgado et al., 2013). However, these associations are generally weak to moderate, suggesting that other factors, such as situational factors and motivational processes, also play a role in work engagement.
Self-Determination Theory has been used to explain the motivational processes that underlie work engagement. Research has shown that autonomy, competence, and relatedness are positively associated with work engagement, and that intrinsic motivation mediates this relationship (Mäkikangas & Kinnunen, 2016). Moreover, interventions that promote these basic psychological needs, such as job crafting and participative decision-making, have been found to enhance work engagement (Tims et al., 2013).
The association between personality and work engagement is complex and multifaceted. While personality traits can predict work engagement to some extent, situational factors and motivational processes also play an important role. The Big Five Personality Model and Self-Determination Theory offer complementary perspectives on this phenomenon, and their integration may provide
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2008). Towards a model of work engagement. Career Development International, 13(3), 209-223.
Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) manual. Psychological Assessment Resources.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.