Abrams, E. M., Shaker, M., Oppenheimer, J., Davis, R. S., Bukstein, D. A., & Greenhawt, M. (2020). The challenges and opportunities for shared decision making highlighted by COVID-19. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 8(8), 2474-2480. https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jaip.2020.07.003.
Akram, M., Shahzadi, G., & Ahmadini, A. A. H. (2020). Decision-making framework for an effective sanitizer to reduce COVID-19 under Fermatean fuzzy environment. Journal of Mathematics, 2020, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/3263407.
Al‐Dabbagh, Z. S. (2020). The role of decision‐maker in crisis management: A qualitative study using grounded theory (COVID‐19 pandemic crisis as a model). Journal of Public Affairs, 20(4), e2186. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.2186.
Anton, N., Hornbeck, T., Modlin, S., Haque, M. M., Crites, M., & Yu, D. (2021). Identifying factors that nurses consider in the decision-making process related to patient care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Plos one, 16(7), e0254077. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0254077.
Duffey, R. B., & Zio, E. (2020). CoVid-19 pandemic trend modeling and analysis to support resilience decision-making. Biology, 9(7), 156. https://doi.org/10.3390%2Fbiology9070156
Marzo, R. R., Ahmad, A., Islam, M. S., Essar, M. Y., Heidler, P., King, I., … & Yi, S. (2022). Perceived COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness, acceptance, and drivers of vaccination decision-making among the general adult population: A global survey of 20 countries. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 16(1), e0010103. https://doi.org/10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0010103
Mizrahi, S., Vigoda‐Gadot, E., & Cohen, N. (2021). How well do they manage a crisis? The government’s effectiveness during the Covid‐19 pandemic. Public Administration Review, 81(6), 1120-1130. https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fpuar.13370.
Warrier, U., Shankar, A., & Belal, H. M. (2021). Examining the role of emotional intelligence as a moderator for virtual communication and decision-making effectiveness during the COVID-19 crisis: revisiting task technology fit theory. Annals of Operations research, 1-17. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10479-021-04216-8.
Yu, S., Qing, Q., Zhang, C., Shehzad, A., Oatley, G., & Xia, F. (2021). Data-driven decision-making in COVID-19 response: A survey. IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems, 8(4), 1016-1029.
Decision-making during Disasters or Crisis
Effective decision-making during a crisis or disaster is critical to developing the right plans and determining the best actions to manage the situation. In the case of COVID-19, various stakeholders such as governments, mental health facilities, communities, and the private sector played a crucial role in developing the right frameworks that confirmed effective decision-making in dealing with the crisis. This essay will answer the research question: How did stakeholders such as governments, mental health facilities, communities, and the private sector ensure effectiveness in dealing with the COVID-19 crisis? Were there influencing factors in the decision-making process?
Stakeholders and Effective Decision-making in COVID-19 Management
COVID-19 was complex and dynamic, making it difficult to manage its consequences. However, various stakeholders have played a significant role in determining the acceptability and hesitancy of people in their decision-making regarding vaccines. Marzo et al. (2022) used a snowball sampling approach via an online cross-sectional study in about 20 countries to confirm that mass vaccination served as an effective and efficient government decision to reduce the COVID-19 burden. This study looked at how governments have played a significant role in decision-making and creating the desired results.
Effective decision-making demands an understanding of the pandemic to employ stages, strategies, and skills to achieve desired results. Al-Dabbagh (2020) confirmed this by focusing on how different global stakeholders, such as governments and the private sector remained strategic in decision-making when the world was affected by the novel coronavirus pandemic. The study revealed that decision-making was a critical component of managing the COVID-19 pandemic since skills and knowledge needed to be strengthened for effective decision-making outcomes.
Yu et al. (2021) reiterated that, for stakeholders to achieve their outcome at the pandemic’s beginning, data-driven decision-making remained important in providing adequate evidence and insights to ensure an effective decision-making process in managing a disaster such as COVID-19. Data management plays a crucial role in improving decision-making in managing the health and well-being of patients. Proper data management enables stakeholders to make informed decisions that can save lives.
Stakeholders such as governments, community members, and the private sector had to remain resilient in their decisions to manage the negative consequences of the pandemic. Abrams et al. (2020) focused on the role of shared decision-making (SDM) among stakeholders. Managing the increasing number of patients through effective care was important. Effective care could only be achieved with implementing shared decision-making. It means that shared decision-making influences an understanding of the challenges and opportunities involved in delivering care when dealing with a crisis. The communication of risks at a time of uncertainties during the pandemic is instrumental in fostering a patient-centered approach to managing risks.
Emotional intelligence is critical, besides skills, selecting the right tool, and positioning oneself well in the decision-making process to achieve desired results in a pandemic such as COVID-19. Warrier (2021) argued that emotional intelligence influences decision-making by managing pandemics since it initiates stakeholder collaborations. Mizrahi et al. (2021) argued that emotional intelligence ensured decision-making played a major role in creating the best preparation outcomes among citizens. Hence, it enabled the government to remain transparent in its decision-making to respond to issues affecting the citizens, allowing the public’s participation in decisions.
In the decision-making process, effectiveness means skills and knowledge are employed to achieve the intended outcome. Failure to do so means that the decision-making process will have some ineffectiveness. With COVID-19 having spread across the world within the shortest time, it affected the decision of governments and people on how they could influence safety. The response to the epidemic became difficult since it involved making many important decisions to save the community and the global economy.
Duffey and cusses the importance of collaboration and partnerships as critical tools to initiate positive decision-making during a crisis. They emphasize the need for stakeholders to work together, share information and resources, and coordinate efforts to respond effectively to a disaster. This approach can help mitigate the negative consequences of a crisis and prevent delays in decision-making, which can lead to further harm to communities.
Another crucial aspect of decision-making during a crisis is the role of shared decision-making (SDM) among stakeholders. Abrams et al. (2020) highlight the importance of SDM in managing the increasing number of patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. They argue that effective care can only be achieved through implementing shared decision-making, which involves an understanding of the challenges and opportunities involved in delivering care during a crisis. This approach ensures that communication of risks at a time of uncertainties during the pandemic is instrumental in fostering a patient-centered approach to managing risks.
Finally, emotional intelligence is critical in decision-making during a crisis, as it can initiate stakeholder collaborations and enable effective management of patient deterioration, mentally or physically. Warrier (2021) argues that emotional intelligence influences decision-making by managing pandemics. Emotional intelligence enables stakeholders to remain transparent in their decision-making to respond to issues affecting the citizens, allowing for public participation in decisions.
In conclusion, the research question on how stakeholders ensured effectiveness in dealing with the COVID-19 crisis revealed the importance of decision-making in managing disasters. The sources show that decision-making during a crisis involves using the right tools, skills, and knowledge to achieve the intended outcomes. Effective decision-making demands an understanding of the pandemic to employ stages, strategies, and skills to achieve desired results. Collaboration and partnerships, shared decision-making, and emotional intelligence are crucial tools in promoting positive decision-making during a crisis. Therefore, stakeholders should continue to work together, share information and resources, and coordinate efforts to respond effectively to a disaster.