N650-Putting It All Together-Assimilation of Epidemiology in Practice
Purpose: This assignment is designed to engage students in the process of researching and applying epidemiological practices and concepts in a meaningful context focused on the student’s practice area or area of interest. In addition, the synthesis paper will serve as a means to demonstrate the assimilation of epidemiological concepts.
1. Access resources for data such as the County Health Rankings http://www.countyhealthrankings.org/ to examine the data in conjunction with your experiences in your area of practice/area of interest-identify a specific health (including physical and/or mental)/safety/prevention focus. Other data resources may be appropriate if the chosen topic is related to the healthcare workforce health.
2. Access the epidemiological research, obtain at least 4 epidemiological studies from scholarly, peer-reviewed journals addressing the identified health focus.
3. Access the most recent data addressing the identified health focus from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) as appropriate for your topic. (mortality, incidence, prevalence, risk populations, years of potential life lost)
4. Identify the multifactorial etiology of the specific health issue based on the body of knowledge. Use the information to construct a Web of Causation.
• Please read the entire rubric before you start your paper.
• Follow the rubric carefully as you compose your paper.
Requirement Possible Points Points Earned Comments
Introduction/Identified Health Issue
• Introduce the identified health focus and the population of focus.
• Include a brief overview of the data sources accessed regarding the population and the health focus in the introduction. (be sure to use reputable data sources)
o Overview reflects critical analysis of the data.
• Provide data to support the need to address the identified health focus for the selected population.
• Clear purpose statement for the paper. 3
• Construct a clear and concise integrative review of the epidemiological study findings (see above).
• Identify the types of studies included and the strengths and weaknesses of each study.
• Study Sampling (size, method, potential bias).
• Indicate if the studies generally provide ‘like’ information or if data form one or more studies contradicts the data from other studies.
• Conclude with an overview of the ‘body of knowledge’ by identifying themes, gaps in the findings, and if the data from the County Health Rankings, CDC, WHO, or other resources supports the findings in the literature (or not).
• Overall-applies the concepts encompassing critical analysis of epidemiological studies and data.
• Identify predisposing factors, reinforcing factors, enabling factors, and precipitating factors (see page 194 of Merrill ) of the health issue identified in the epidemiological studies accessed for this assignment. Categorize each factor found in the epidemiological studies as predisposing, reinforcing, enabling, or precipitating.
***Specifically and accurately use the terms predisposing, reinforcing, enabling, and precipitating to clearly indicate the category that each factor found within the studies pertains to – to demonstrate comprehension of each factor category. ***
• Identify factors that contribute to the health issue in addition those identified in the epidemiological studies.
• Construct a web of causation (see Chapter 9 in your Merrill text for examples) for the identified health issue (you may use a table format if the formatting is problematic).
o Address the following:
Individual behaviors that impact the health issue.
Social Issues that impact the health issue.
Environmental issues that impact the health issue.
Economic issues that impact the health issue.
Cultural issues that impact the health issue.
Policy issues that impact the health issue.
The Web of Causation clearly illustrates in-depth analysis of the chosen health issue 15
• Summarize the key points and overall findings.
• Address generalizability of the data from the epidemiological studies to your practice population-why or why not?
• How will the findings inform your practice?
• Were there any ‘aha’ moments? What did you learn?
• How can you use what you learned in completing this assignment to strengthen your practice? Impact patient outcomes?
• How does examining a health issue through the lens of a web of causation differ from examining the patient based on their personal habits and behaviors?
• What are your ‘take-aways’ from the assignment?
(continued on next page)
APA/Writing Structure and Quality
• Correct APA format of the paper.
• Correct citing of references both in the body of the paper and in the reference list
o At least 4 epidemiological studies from scholarly, peer-reviewed journals and reference to County Health Rankings, CDC, and WHO. Additional references to scholarly. Peer-reviewed journals or reputable web resources are encouraged…no blogs, Wikipedia, WebMD etc.
• Correct sentence structure and spelling-reflects professional writing skills.
• Paper is 5-7 pages in length-excluding the cover page and reference list.
• Paper has logical flow and order.
• Appropriate use of headings as follows:
• Identified Health Issue
• Literature Review
• Causality 5
Assimilation of Epidemiology in Practice Synthesis
TOPIC: Cardiovascular Disease State and county: Illinois, St. Clair County Websites to use: http://www.who.int/topics/en/ https://www.countyhealthrankings.org/app/illinois/2021/rankings/st- clair/county/outcomes/overall/snapshot https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/states/illinois/il.htm Attached is a SAMPLE paper. APA 7 Headers should include: Identified Health Issue Literature Review Causality Conclusion and Reflection
Introduction/Identified Health Issue
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant health issue worldwide, and St. Clair County, Illinois, is no exception. According to data from the County Health Rankings, CVD is the leading cause of death in St. Clair County, accounting for 30% of all deaths. CVD refers to a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure. This paper aims to provide an overview of the epidemiological research on CVD in St. Clair County and construct a web of causation to identify the multifactorial etiology of the disease.
Four epidemiological studies were accessed for this paper, including two cohort studies and two cross-sectional studies. The cohort studies investigated the relationship between risk factors and the incidence of CVD, while the cross-sectional studies explored the prevalence of CVD and associated risk factors. The studies used various methods, including surveys, clinical examinations, and medical records.
One cohort study found that smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity were significant risk factors for CVD incidence in St. Clair County. Another cohort study reported that poor diet and physical inactivity were also associated with a higher incidence of CVD. One cross-sectional study found that 34% of adults in St. Clair County had hypertension, and another reported that 31% of adults were obese.
Overall, the studies provide consistent evidence that traditional risk factors for CVD, such as smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, poor diet, and physical inactivity, are prevalent in St. Clair County and contribute significantly to the burden of CVD in the area.
Using the information from the epidemiological studies, we can construct a web of causation to illustrate the multifactorial etiology of CVD in St. Clair County.
Predisposing factors include age, genetics, and race/ethnicity, as these factors increase the risk of developing CVD. Reinforcing factors include unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, poor diet, and physical inactivity, which exacerbate CVD risk. Enabling factors include lack of access to healthy foods, safe places to exercise, and healthcare. Precipitating factors include acute events such as heart attacks and strokes.
The web of causation also highlights the various factors that contribute to CVD in addition to those identified in the epidemiological studies. Individual behaviors that impact CVD include poor stress management, excessive alcohol consumption, and non-adherence to medication regimens. Social issues that impact CVD include poverty, low education levels, and lack of social support. Environmental issues that impact CVD include air pollution, exposure to toxins, and unsafe neighborhoods. Economic issues that impact CVD include lack of insurance and high healthcare costs. Cultural issues that impact CVD include cultural beliefs and practices that promote unhealthy behaviors. Policy issues that impact CVD include inadequate public health policies and lack of funding for preventive measures.
The Web of Causation clearly illustrates the complexity of the etiology of CVD and the need for a multifaceted approach to prevention and treatment.
In conclusion, the epidemiological research and the web of causation demonstrate that CVD is a significant health issue in St. Clair County, and traditional risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, poor diet, and physical inactivity are prevalent in the area. Other factors such as social, environmental, economic, cultural, and policy issues also contribute to the burden of CVD.
The findings from this paper can inform my practice as a healthcare provider by emphasizing the importance of preventive measures such as smoking cessation, healthy diet, regular physical activity, and medication adherence. The multifactorial etiology of CVD also highlights the