As a manager on a medical surgical unit – Dementia

As a manager on a medical surgical unit, part of the job responsibility includes chart audits.

A trend noted during the most recent audit was the overuse of the term “dementia.” The nurse manager notes that there may be a lack of understanding between the types dementia as related to neurological diseases.

The nurse manager developed a survey to evaluate the staff’s understanding of the different types of dementia. As a result of the survey, you have been asked to create a PowerPoint presentation to increase the nurse’s awareness of the types of dementia a presentation was created.

Choose one of the following topics for a focused presentation:

Vascular Dementia
The presentation should include the following:

Etiology & incidence
Health promotion and maintenance
History/Risk factors
Physical signs and symptoms
Changes in cognition
Changes in behavior & personality
Changes in self-management skills
Diagnostics: laboratory and imaging assessment
Planning and implementation
Interprofessional Collaborative Care
Psychosocial integrity
Safety considerations
Using Ignatavicius and one additional resource, develop a presentation to enhance the nurses’ knowledge of the differences between types of dementia and delirium. Be sure to document your source(s) in your presentation.

Dementia is a general term that describes a decline in cognitive function and a loss of ability to perform daily activities. There are several types of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular dementia. It is important for healthcare professionals, especially nurses, to understand the differences between these types of dementia and delirium to provide appropriate care to patients. In this presentation, we will focus on the pathophysiology, etiology and incidence, health promotion and maintenance, history and risk factors, physical signs and symptoms, changes in cognition, behavior and personality, self-management skills, diagnostics, planning and implementation, interprofessional collaborative care, psychosocial integrity, medications, and safety considerations for Parkinson’s disease dementia.

Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD) is a type of dementia that is caused by the degeneration of neurons in the brain that produce dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is important for movement, motivation, and reward. As the neurons degenerate, the brain has less dopamine, leading to the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia. In addition to motor symptoms, PDD also causes cognitive impairment, including memory loss, language difficulties, and executive dysfunction.

Etiology and incidence
Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population over the age of 60. The exact cause of Parkinson’s disease is unknown, but it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. PDD is a common complication of Parkinson’s disease, affecting up to 80% of patients with Parkinson’s disease over the course of their illness.

Health promotion and maintenance
There is currently no cure for Parkinson’s disease or PDD, but there are several strategies that can help improve symptoms and quality of life. These include:

Medications that increase dopamine levels in the brain, such as levodopa and dopamine agonists
Deep brain stimulation, a surgical procedure that involves implanting electrodes in the brain to stimulate specific areas
Physical therapy and exercise to improve mobility and balance
Speech therapy to improve communication
Occupational therapy to improve daily living skills
Nutrition and hydration to maintain overall health
History and risk factors
The risk of developing Parkinson’s disease increases with age, and it is more common in men than women. Other risk factors include a family history of Parkinson’s disease, exposure to certain environmental toxins, and head injuries.

Physical signs and symptoms
The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slow movement), and postural instability. Other physical symptoms can include a shuffling gait, stooped posture, and decreased facial expression.

Changes in cognition
PDD causes cognitive impairment, including memory loss, language difficulties, and executive dysfunction. Patients with PDD may have difficulty with attention, concentration, and problem-solving.

Changes in behavior and personality
PDD can cause changes in behavior and personality, including depression, anxiety, apathy, and hallucinations.

Changes in self-management skills
Patients with PDD may have difficulty with self-management skills, such as dressing, grooming, and hygiene.

The diagnosis of PDD is based on a combination of clinical evaluation and neuropsychological testing. Imaging studies, such as MRI or CT scans, may also be used to rule out other causes of cognitive impairment.

Planning and implementation
The goal of treatment for PDD is to improve symptoms and quality of life. This may involve a combination of medications, surgery, and therapy, depending on the patient’s individual needs. Patients with PDD may also benefit from support groups and counseling to help them cope with the challenges of living with dementia.


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