According to Whitney (2018), leadership and management are inextricably linked; leadership cannot exist without management and vice versa. All nurses, at some point, assume leadership and managerial responsibilities. Managerial and leadership roles may overlap in the sense that both look ahead and are not limited in their thinking (Whitney, 2018). Both roles have a strong influence on not only their group, but also on outsiders (Whitney, 2018). “Nurse leader-managers are change agents,” Whitney (2018) continues. They accept the organization’s current structure and processes but recognize the need for change in response to ever-changing realities and desire organizational growth as needed.” Nurse leaders can use their influence over a group and beyond to facilitate change. According to Valiga (2019), “leaders use the strengths and talents of those around them to influence positive change, frequently empowering others to take on leadership roles of their own.” They motivate, encourage, and mentor their followers. Followers, in turn, challenge leaders and propose alternatives to their ideas.” Despite their similarities, there are some distinctions. Managerial positions, for example, are assigned, whereas leadership positions are appointed through influence (Whitney, 2018). More distinctions exist: managers typically have authoritative roles and subordinates, whereas leaders typically lack that authority but have followers (Whitney, 2018).
T. Valiga (2019). Working together, leaders, managers, and followers. Nursing2022.
S. Whitney (2018). Leadership and management theories and concepts University of the Grand Canyon (Ed.). Nursing Management and Leadership: Leading and Serving
Leadership frequently lacks authority but gains power through influence; a broader range of roles than managers; goals that may or may not be aligned with those of the organization; willing followers; a focus on interpersonal relationships and the empowerment of others; and a focus on gathering information, group processes, and providing feedback (Whitney, 2018). Management, on the other hand, is assigned by the organization; they are a source of power and authority with specific duties and responsibilities; willing and unwilling subordinates; manipulate resources; and they focus on control, decision making, evaluation, and results (Whitney, 2018).
Leadership and management in nursing have an impact not only on other staff members, but also on the patients under the staff’s care (Whitney, 2018). They have an impact on those around them. Nurse leaders are respected by their entire staff. This has happened in my own workplace. As charge nurse, I am regarded as the clinic’s leader. How we conduct ourselves, how we treat others, and how we deal with specific situations. They look to me for change within the clinic, and when something goes wrong, they look for a way to improve the outcome in the future.
S. Whitney (2018). Nursing Management and Leadership: Leading and Serving Leadership and management theories and concepts ——- https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs451vn/nursing-leadership-and-management-leading-and-serving/v2.1/#/chapter/1
The distinction between leadership and management is determined by the organization and the roles assigned within it. According to Whitney (2018), leaders frequently serve multiple functions, such as directing the willing, focusing on relationships, and empowering others. In comparison to managers, they are given authority and specific oversight responsibilities. A nurse with no leadership skills can be a manager. According to Whitney (2018), this is considered a failure.
Management and leadership objectives can overlap in a variety of ways. Nurse leaders and managers have formal or informal authority over other members of staff. They also support the organization’s values and mission, promote positive change, and are politically aware (Whitney, 2018). A Registered Nurse caring for a patient workload and managing their patients’ care is an example of shared responsibilities. The nurse is in charge of reviewing, organizing, carrying out, and delegating orders and tasks to other members of the healthcare team. This is accomplished with the help of the charge nurse, who provides organizational support and supervision to the floor nurse.
As a nursing leader, I can use this overlap to inspire and motivate new nurses and staff. I can serve as an example by upholding organizational standards and providing safe patient care. And I can gain experience and advance to management and director positions by learning leadership skills.
S. Whitney as a source: (2018). Grand Canyon University is led and served by theories and concepts in leadership and management, nursing leadership and management. https://lc.gcumedia.com
Some leadership theories, such as the Great Man Theory, Transactional Theory, and Servant Leadership Theory, can be used to identify leaders in nursing practice. The Great Man theory of leadership dates back to the mid-nineteenth century. The theory holds that leadership qualities are inherent, implying that great leaders are born rather than made (Harrison, 2018). Furthermore, such leaders frequently rise when confronted with appropriate life situations and conditions that require them to think critically and make intelligent decisions. The Great Man Theory of Leadership creates leaders in nursing practice who can make sound decisions for the well-being of the hospital fraternity. However, it does not permit employee participation and follows because they believe they have the final say.
The transactional leadership theory, as opposed to the great man leadership theory, is an exchange theory of leadership that ensures a transaction between the leader and the organization’s followers. As a result, it promotes a positive and mutually beneficial relationship that inspires followers to achieve the organizational goals (Boamah & Tremblay, 2019). A leader focuses on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance in this leadership style. Furthermore, leaders will use rewards and punishments to motivate followers to achieve organizational objectives (Kalsoom et al., 2018). Given that nursing leadership entails the collaboration of various departments to ensure the efficient operation of nursing organizations, transactional leadership theory is the best leadership style and theory in nursing practice because it establishes rapport between leaders and followers. Despite its ability to bring every stakeholder on board, the theory denies a leader the ability to make independent decisions and may prolong the decision-making process.
S. A. Boamah and P. Tremblay (2019). The factor structure of the MLQ transactional and transformational leadership dimensions in the nursing context is being investigated. doi: 10.1177/0193945918778833. Western journal of nursing research, 41(5), 743-761.
C. Harrison (2018). Leadership theory and research Leadership Research and Theory (pp. 15-32). Palgrave ISBN 978-3-319-68672-1, Macmillan, Cham.
Z. Kalsoom, M. A. Khan, and D. S. S. Zubair (2018). The impact of transactional and transformational leadership on employee performance: A case study of Pakistan’s FMCG industry. Industrial Engineering Letters, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 23-30. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract id=3206826
According to Cope and Murray (2017), one of the professional responsibilities of nurses is leadership. Today, several leadership theories are used in nursing. Transformational leadership, a relational style, and transactional leadership, a task-focused style, are the two most appropriate for nursing. The first, transformational leadership style, is regarded as the gold standard of leadership, in which nursing leaders prioritize both nurses and nursing itself (Cope & Murray, 2017). Transformational leaders epitomize nursing because they use their passion for caring for others to care for their followers. These leaders are motivating, empowering, empathetic, and inspiring, and they are concerned with long-term success (Whitney, 2018). Transactional leadership is a “tasked-force” leadership style in which a service/task is provided and then rewarded or positive feedback is given to motivate the employees (Cope & Murray, 2017). According to Garcia (2017b), this leadership theory works well when the goal is to create standardized practices and processes, such as evidence-based practices and processes.
As with any theory, there are flaws. According to Garcia (2022a), transformational leadership flaws include limited applicability, reliance on cultural context, and a negative impact on creativity. When focusing solely on the task at hand, transactional leadership can result in a non-holistic approach to patient care (Cope & Murray, 2017) and is unsuitable for collaborations (Garcia, 2022b).
V. Cope and M. Murray (2017). Nursing leadership styles 61-70 in Nursing Standard, 31(43). https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.2017.e10836
C. Garcia (2022a, February 9). Strengths and Weaknesses of Transformational Leadership www.konsyse.com/articles/transformational-leadership-strengths-and-weaknesses/ HANNA
The transactional theory and the theory of transformation are two major leadership theories. The transactional theory proposes that managers give employees something they want in exchange for something they want. Transactional leadership is defined as “an exchange relationship in which the leader clearly communicates what is expected of followers” (Berkovich & Eyal, 2021). The theory of transformation is a leadership theory that relies heavily on team members’ encouragement to realize and achieve overall success. Transformational leadership is defined as “a style of leadership that motivates followers to perform better than expected by changing their morale, ideals, interests, and values” (Berkovich & Eyal, 2021). These theories frequently coexist and can contribute to success.
In the nursing and medical fields, both types of leadership have positive correlations with the implementation of evidence-based practices into actual practice. Leadership style has a significant impact on the profession as a whole. Transactional leadership is effective at accomplishing short-term goals and tasks (Richards, 2020). In the nursing profession, this can be used for day-to-day tasks or achieving short-term goals such as having the unit go a month without a fall. However, it should be used in conjunction with other styles, such as transformational, to maximize its effectiveness. Using this combination can help to ensure a focus on relationships and employees (Richards, 2020). It is critical in nursing that employees feel supported and that they can rely on someone. One study discovered that those with more factors in the solution were more successful, but that a new theory for transformational leadership needed to be developed (Boamah & Tremblay, 2019).
I. Berkovich and O. Eyal (2021). Transformational leadership, transactional leadership, and moral reasoning are all examples of leadership styles. Leadership and Policy in Education, 20(2), pp. 131-148. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1080/15700763.2019.1585551
According to the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, the law requires you to report child abuse or neglect if you suspect it. If the suspected abuse or neglect involves a person responsible for the child’s care, custody, or welfare, or someone who lives in the child’s home, contact the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services (DFPS) (Texas Department of Family and Protective Services, n.d). Before patients are admitted to the hospital, our ER nurses frequently complete this process. Child Protective Services (CPS), a division of the Department of Family and Protective Services, is in charge of conducting civil investigations into allegations of abuse or neglect by caregivers or household members. We can also notify any local or state law enforcement agency about suspected abuse or neglect of a person (Liu & Vaughn, 2019). Criminal investigations, which seek to determine who committed a crime, are the responsibility of law enforcement agencies. The CPS investigation is a separate civil court case that focuses on the child’s and family’s well-being. When we make a report or provide information in good faith during a CPS investigation, we are protected by liability law.
We recently had a pediatric patient admitted to our hospital following a car accident. We called CPS, who already had a case file open on the mother, as per protocol. The mother had lost custody of her daughter, had become violent with the child’s foster mother, and had abducted her. Furthermore, she was driving with the child while intoxicated, which caused the crash. As CPS launched their investigation, we contacted law enforcement, who launched their own investigation.
B. C. C. Liu and M. S. Vaughn (2019). Legal and policy issues concerning mandatory reporting of child abuse in the United States and around the world. 219-229. International journal of law and psychiatry, 64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2019.03.007
Department of Family and Protective Services of Texas (n.d.). When and How Should You Report Child Abuse? https://www.dfps.state.tx.us/Child Protection/Child Safety/report abuse.asp
Georgia’s mandated reporter law – O.C.G.A. 19-7-5 – is intended to protect children (2016). It states that you must report it to your local DFCS office or law enforcement immediately, but no later than 24 hours later, or face criminal charges. The law requires 55 entities, including but not limited to medical personnel, case managers, public servants, and school personnel, to report such suspicions (Department os Human Services, 2022). Offenses such as physical injury, neglect, endangering a child, sexual abuse, or exploitation would be reported under the statute.
A child who is physically, educationally, or emotionally below developmental norms may necessitate reporting. A single or a combination of these three characteristics may provide reasonable grounds for suspicion of neglect. Medical neglect is a type of neglect that occurs when accredited clergymen do not provide religious healing efforts. In any case, anyone can report suspicion by phone or in writing.
Reporting Requirements (2016). Obtainable at https://oca.georgia.gov/training/mandated-reporting
Human Services Department (2022). Child welfare services. URL: https://cps.dhs.ga.gov/Main/Default.aspx
Anyone in North Carolina who suspects abuse must report it. Following the guidelines for receiving privileged communications is not required. Several things are covered by the mandatory reporting guidelines and must be reported when there is “cause to suspect” that a child, adolescent, a senior, or a disabled adult is abused, neglected, or dependent (4.-north-carolina-mandated-reporter-law, 2021). This includes abandonment, abuse (of any kind), a lack of supervision, domestic violence, sexual exploitation, sexting, or neglect. Cases should be reported to the Department of Social Services in the county where the victim resides; there is no time limit for making the report; however, making the report as soon as possible is the safest course of action (4.-north-carolina-mandated-reporter-law, 2021). If you do not report it, you may face a class 1 misdemeanor charge.
Every day in the public school system, I am in contact with teenagers. I once had a student pull down her shirt collar, exposing her shoulder, and ask me, “Do you see anything on my back?” I noticed a bite mark and a bruise right away. When I asked her about it, she tried to dismiss it as if it were unimportant. Then she told me it was from her mother, but everything was fine. I told her I couldn’t ignore it any longer. To handle the situation, I contacted the school social worker. The social worker summoned the student to the office to conduct an investigation and follow-up with her.
4.-mandated-reporter-law-in-North-Carolina [PDF] (2021). https://firstwnc.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/4.-North-Carolina-Mandated-Reporter-Law.pdf